Jarrow Formulas TMG powder contains Trimethylglycine (TMG, also known as anhydrous betaine), a highly effective methyl donor extracted from sugar beets.
Methyl donors, such as TMG and folic acid, are required for converting homocysteine back into methionine and for the accurate synthesis of DNA and RNA, which is essential for the production of normal cells.
Methylation is inhibited by inadequately functioning key enzymes, excessive protein and fat intake, poor diet, inadequate intake of methyl groups, coffee, alcohol or by smoking. Impairment of methylation results in abnormal cell synthesis and elevated levels of homocysteine, a toxic amino acid and a serious health risk.
For athletes, TMG is interesting because it can increase the work capacity of fast twitch muscle fibers, resulting in an increased endurance capacity and a raised lactate threshold. TMG is also interesting for strength athletes who use creatine or citrulline supplements , because a methyl-group is needed for complete conversion.
What is homocysteine and why does it matter?
Homocysteine is sometimes called the “new cholesterol” because of its role in cardiovascular health. High blood levels of this compound are damaging in themselves but elevated readings may also be indicative of sluggish homocysteine metabolism. In addition, homocysteine levels are raised by such factors as poor diet, smoking, genetic predisposition and low levels of B vitamins (folic acid, B6, and B12).
The essential amino acid methionine, which comes only from the diet, is “used up” by the body to help donate a methyl group (CH3 - one carbon linked to three hydrogen atoms) to processes going on in every cell. These processes lead to the conversion of some of this methionine to homocysteine, and then into homocysteine thiolactone. This latter compound is a highly toxic metabolite or byproduct. The remethylation of homocysteine, with the help of folic acid, vitamin B12 and trimethylglycine (TMG), converts homocysteine back into methionine.
The methionine-homocysteine axis must be kept working smoothly and efficiently to reduce the levels of toxic homocysteine. A certain amount of homocysteine is present in the blood and tissues at any given time, but high levels are undesirable. It is also important to keep levels of S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM-e) high in modulating the methionine-homocysteine axis. Homocysteine poses a threat only when the pathways to its conversion inside the cells are sluggish. When this happens, homocysteine is exported into the blood, where it causes damage.
For optimal health, both the pathway from homocysteine to methionine and SAM-e and the pathway from homocysteine to the amino acid cysteine (and, ultimately, elimination) must be operating smoothly. A build-up in serum homocysteine indicates that either one or both of the transformation pathways are sluggish. Vitamin B6 is the most important nutritional factor for keeping the second “elimination” pathway working smoothly
Link between methyl donors and anti-oxidants
Methylation helps remediate certain toxic compounds in ways typical antioxidants do not. Homocysteine is one of these compounds.
Methyl donors also act to support the transformation of compounds within the cells, such as the production of neurotransmitters and the anti-infl ammatory polyamines, and to protect DNA from damage. In this sense, the protective roles of methyl donors and antioxidants are complementary.
Methyl donors can improve the antioxidant status of the body indirectly by taking on some of the protective duties performed by antioxidants. However, methyl donors also add directly to the body’s antioxidant capacities by increasing the production of the antioxidant glutathione. With the help of vitamin B6, degradation of homocysteine provides precursor sulfur for the biosynthesis of taurine.
Aging and homocysteine levels and reduced methylation
Most of the conditions which are thought to be linked to sluggish homocysteine metabolism are, likewise, linked to the aging process.
The methylation pathway declines with age, and this decline leads to a loss of the detoxifi cation and repair operations which must be continuously renewed to maintain good health. For instance, methylation is perhaps the body’s most important built-in mechanism for protecting cellular DNA. Supplementation with methyl donors thus becomes one of the options which should be considered for maintaining sound health under conditions of stress and advancing years
Methylation for the liver and the brain
Methyl donors play a large role in the liver’s functions, in part because of their ability to support glutathione production for antioxidant protection and bile production for the disposal of toxins. Methyl donors, moreover, are amongst the classic lipotropics, substances which improve the ability of the liver to process fats and alcohol.
The brain is another organ which depends greatly upon methylation. Transmethylation is so pervasive in the formation, release and reuptake of neurotransmitters that it is difficult to pinpoint any one brain mechanism paramount in importance. However, the regulatory mechanisms of the neurotransmitters epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine all depend on methylation.
Symptoms and natural treatments of indigestionIndigestion or heartburn can happen when your body has trouble digesting food. Anyone can get it on occasion, or it can be an ongoing problem. Heartburn is especially prominent in December with so many holidays accompanied with delicious foods, that prompt us to overindulge.
While acid reflux is a common phenomenon, not all symptoms of it, are very obvious.
When heartburn happens, for instance due to smoking, alcohol, medication, carbonated drinks or some foods that are difficult to process (spices, fats, acids, fiber) may cause a valve-like stomach muscle to loosen, allowing stomach acid to backwash into the esophagus. This exposes sensitive tissue in the chest to stomach acids, causing painful symptoms.
Common symptoms of reflux are a burning feeling in your chest or stomach, burping, bloating, gurgling stomach, acid reflux, heartburn, nausea or even vomiting.
Problems in your GI tract or other health issues also can cause indigestion. These include:
- acid reflux, gastroesophageal reflux (GER), or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): A reaction to food and drink where contents come back up from your stomach. The acid can come up into your esophagus, the tube-like organ connecting your mouth and stomach. Acid reflux also can produce vomiting. This condition causes heartburn because of the high acid contents.
- irritable bowel syndrome: a disorder that affects your intestines. Symptoms include stomach pain, bloating, gas, constipation, and diarrhea.
- infection: a bacterial infection from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) can cause indigestion.
- gastroparesis: A condition that affects digestion. If muscles in your GI tract stop working, your body slows down or stops the movement of food. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, bloating, and acid reflux.
- ulcer: A sore on the lining of your stomach (peptic ulcer), small intestine, or esophagus.
- gastritis: Inflammation of your stomach lining.
- stomach cancer: This is a rare condition, but indigestion can be one of its signs.
Homocysteine: the real culpritFor the longest time we have been led to believe having a high cholesterol diet is dangerous for our health. This assumption was based on research done by Ancel Keys, who compared diets in seven hand-picked countries and concluded a diet low in animal fats (and cholesterol) was best for cardiovascular health.
This assumption started the war on saturated fats and cholesterol in the mid-1950s Soon doctors around the world were promoting a low fat, low cholesterol diet.
For the next three decades, millions of people gave up butter for margarine, drank low fat milk and diminished their egg intake.
Take 1 scoop per day or as directed by your qualified health care consultant.
take 2 scoops 30 30 minutes prior to a training or competition
contains per daily serving (1 level scoop)
trimethylglycine (anhydrous betaïne) 650 mg†
† = Recommended Daily Intake not established
100% trimetylglycine (betaine)
Store in a cool, dry place; keep lid tightly closed
keep out of reach of young children
If you have a medical condition, are pregnant, lactating, or trying to conceive, are under the age of 18, or are taking medications, consult your health care practitioner before using this product.
contains no familiar allergens (wheat, gluten, soy, lupin, nuts/tree nuts, celery, mustard, sesame seeds, dairy, egg, fish/shellfish or mollusks)
suitable for vegetarians and vegans